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Galileu Galilei
(Carlos Iafelice Junior)

Biography Son of the toscano composer Vincenzo Galilei, in the youth dedicated to it the letters, writing on Dante and Tasso. It discovered the law of the bodies and enunciated the principle of Inertia. For little Galileu it did not follow the artistic career. One of its first masters, Orazio Morandi, tried to stimulate it from the coincidence of dates with Michelangelo - that it had died three days after its birth. Its father wanted that he was doctor, then disembarked in the port of Steps on to follow this profession. But péssimo was one pupil and alone it thought about making physical experiences -; that, at the time, she was considered a science of sonhadores. He was at this time that he discovered as to make the hydrostatic scale, that would originate the pendulum clock. Having known of the construction of the first telescope, in Holland, from a brochure, he constructed, in 1609, in Venice the first astronomical lens and made with it astronomical comments: the composition to estelar of the Way Látea from 1610, the Jupiter satellites, - arms - of Saturn - he did not arrive to discern rings, the spots of the Sun and the phases of Venus. All these discoveries had been communicated to the world in the Sidereus book nuntius - Messenger of the stars - in 1610. The comment of the phases of Venus, had taken it to adapt it the system of;-Heliocêntrico Copérnico. Pressured for the Church, it was for Florença, where it concluíu with its studies that the Planetary Center was the Sun and not it Land, this turned around of it as all the planets. Galileu was called Rome in 1611 to defend itself of the heresy accusation. He was the convict, however, in 1616, it had that to mere sign a decree of the Court of the Inquisition, declaring to be hypothetical the heliocêntrico system. In this declaration one reads that the movements of the bodies in the sky -; already they were described in the Salmos, in the book of Josua and other tickets of the Bible. Therefore, Galilei would have to leave these subjects for the parents of the Church. Despite the admonitions, encouraged for the entrance in functions in 1623 of a new Urban Pope VIII, a more gradual and interested spirit in sciences of that its predecessor, published in this year exactly the Saggiatore - Experimenter - to fight the aristotelian physics and to establish the mathematics as bedding of accurate sciences. In the Dialogue I gave massimi sistemi - Dialogue on the great systems of the universe - in 1632, came back to defend the heliocêntrico system. Aristotle placed in quarrel many ideas of the philosopher Greek, between them the fact of that the bodies heavy fall faster than the light ones, with the famous history of that he had gone up in the tower of Steps on and launched two objects of the high one. This history never was confirmed, but Galileu proved that light objects and heavy fall with the same speed. Galileu was fervoroso catholic, but the Church lived at a time afflicted in which Catholic hardened its doctrine to make front to the Protestant Reformation. The arrest of Galileu became an example very cited of - the fight between faith and science. While that in Italy and the zones catholics its books were forbidden, Galilei published without quaiquer problems in the Netherlands, where the protestantismo if had overlapped to the catolicismo. It prays the legend that, when leaving the court after its conviction, said a phrase célebre: -;Epur itself Muove, or either, - however, it moves itself, mentioning the Land to it. She passed the last years of its life, removed in its village, close to Florença, writing in 1634 Discorsi and dimonstrazioni matematiche in lathe due nuove scienze; - Theories and tests mathematical on two new sciences, basic workmanship of the dynamics. It died blind and condemned for the Church, far of the public conviviality. Workmanships of Galileu had been censured and forbidden for the church catholic Roman. However, Galileu obtained that one of its workmanships (on mechanics) posterior to the prohibition was published in Leiden, current Holland, a protestant zone, where the Church Catholic did not have great influence. 341 years after its death, in 1983, the same church, I resell the process, decidiupela its absolution. Main accomplishments the astronomical lens, with which it discovered mountains of the Moon, the Jupiter satellites, the solar spots and planets until then unknown; The hydrostatic scale; The geometric and military compass; He was the first one to contest the ideas of Aristotle; It discovered that the mass does not influence in the speed of the fall of bodies. It studied the oscillations of the pendulum and created 1º pendular mechanism

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