The Theory Of Carnatic Music (sixteen Notes Theory)
Shadjam, Suddha Rishabham, Chathusruthi Rishabham, sadharana Gandharam, Andhara Gandharam, Suddha Madhyamam, Prithi Madhyamam, Panchamam, Suddha Daivatham, Chathusruthi Daivatham, Kaisiki Nishadham and Kakali Nishadham are the Suddha Swaras.
Apart from these 12 notes, we have another four Swaras in our Carnatic Music system.They are: Shadsruthi Rishabham, Suddha Gandharam, Shadsruthi Daivatham, and Suddha Nishadham. These four notes are called as Vivadhi Swaras.
Though there are 16 notes in total usage, there are only 12 places (Swarasthanas). In the other words, the four Vivadhi swaras would Occur in scales in the place of the Suddha Swaras. Shadsruthi Rishabham comes in the place of Sadharana Gandharam. Suddha Gandharam comes in the place of Chathusruthi Rishabham. Shadsruthi Daivatham comes in the place of Kaisiki Nishadham and Suddha Nishadham comes in the place of Chathusruthi Daivatham. In general the Suddha Swaras are denoted by numbers 1 and 2, and the Vivadhi Swaras with number 3.
The Swaras and the numbers:
(1) Shadjam = S (2) Suddha Rishabham = R1 (3) Chathusruthi Rishabham = R2 (4) Shadsruthi Rishabham = R3 (G1) (5)Sadharana Gandharam = G1 (R3) (6) Andhara Gandharam = G2 (7) Suddha Gandharam = G3 (R2) (8) Suddha Madhyamam = M1 (9) Priti Madhyamam = M2 (10) Panchamam = P (11) Suddha Daivatham = D1 (12) Chathusruthi Daivatham = D2 (N3) (13) Shadsruthi Daivatham =D3 (N1) (14) Kaisiki Nishadham = N1 (D3) (15) Kakali Nishadham = N2 and (16) Suddha Nishadham = N3 (D2). In the olden days only Suddha Swaras were used and they were known with numbers 1 and 2. Later the Vivadhi Swaras introduced and the confusion in numbering started. It is always better to use 1 and 2 for the ancient Suddha Swaras and number 3 for the later invented Vivadhi Swaras, irrespective of the positions of the Swaras. This is the Sixteen Notes Theory of Carnatic Music.